Monday, July 3, 2017

Independence Day, Birthday of the United States

Key Dates of the Revolutionary War and ultimately - the birth of this Nation

The nine year French and Indian War finished. This was a war between the British and the colonialists, against the French and their Indian allies. This was importance as it created experienced American military leaders, who unbeknown to themselves, would be fighting against their British masters 12 years later.

June 29: The Townshend Revenue Act. British Parliament passing taxes on the colonies for glass, paint, oil, lead, paper, and tea designed to raise funds for the administration of the colonies. The result was the resurrection of colonial hostilities. This was one of many acts passed by the British Parliament in England enraging Americans who has little to no representation over these matters and were also beginning to get pissed about the heavy handed enforcement of burdening acts by the British Army.

March 5: The Boston Massacre. A street fight between a "patriot" mob, throwing snowballs, stones, and sticks, and a squad of British soldiers. Several colonists were killed and this led to a campaign by speech-writers to rouse the ire of the citizenry. This was a primary event leading to the Revolutionary War. It led directly to the Royal Governor evacuating the occupying army from the town of Boston. It would soon bring the revolution to armed rebellion throughout the colonies.

Dec. 16: The Boston Tea Party resulting from a British tax on tea imported to America. The Sons of Liberty, disguised as Native Americans in defiance of the Tea Act of May 10, 1773, boarded British East India Trade Company ships in Boston Harbor and destroyed an entire shipment of tea by throwing it into the water. British government responded harshly and the episode escalated into the American Revolution.

Sept. 5-Oct. 26: The First Continental Congress meets in Philadelphia 1775
March 23: Patrick Henry's "Give me liberty or give me death" speech
April 18: The Rides of Paul Revere and William Dawes
April 19: Minutemen and redcoats clash at Lexington and Concord "The shot heard 'round the world", when the British moved to seize Colonialists gunpowder and arms, and capture key Colonial leaders Sam Adams and John Hancock. Basically the start of open revolution.
May 10: Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys seize Fort Ticonderoga
May 10: The Second Continental Congress meets in Philadelphia
June 15: George Washington named Commander in Chief
June 17: Battle of Bunker Hill: The British drive the Americans from Breed's Hill
July 3: Washington assumes command of the Continental Army
December 22: Col. Thomson with 1,500 rangers and militia capture Loyalists at Great Canebrake, SC

January 15: Thomas Paine's "Common Sense" published
March 17: The British evacuate Boston; British Navy moves to Halifax, Canada
July 2: Declaration of Independence, largely written by Thomas Jefferson, revised and finalize
July 4: Congress adopts the Declaration of Independence; it's sent to the printer, Read publically on 8 July.
August 27: Redcoats defeat George Washington's army in the Battle of Long Island. Washington's army escapes at night.
September 15: The British occupy New York City. September 16: Generals George Washington, Nathanael Greene, and Israel Putnam triumphantly hold their ground at the Battle of Harlem Heights - a key early American victory.
November 20: British General Lord Cornwallis captures Fort Lee from Nathanael Greene.
December 26: Washington crosses the Delaware and captures Trenton from Hessians.

January 3: Washington victorious at Princeton
June 14: Flag Resolution
July 5: St. Clair surrenders Fort Ticonderoga to the British
July 27: French General Lafayette, arrives in Philadelphia
August 25: British General Howe lands at Head of Elk, Maryland
September 11: The British win the Battle of Brandywine, Pennsylvania
September 26: British under Howe occupy Philadelphia
October 4: Americans driven off at the Battle of Germantown
October 7: Burgoyne loses second battle of Freeman's Farm, NY (at Bemis Heights). This is part of the "Battles of Saratoga."
October 17: Burgoyne surrenders to American General Gates at Saratoga, NY.
November 16: British capture Fort Mifflin, Pennsylvania
December 19: Washington's army retires to winter quarters at Valley Forge

February 6: The United States and France sign the French Alliance
March 7: British General William Howe replaced by Henry Clinton
May 20: Battle of Barren Hill, Pennsylvania. Lafayette with 500 men and about 50 Oneida Indians successfully evade British onslaught
June 18: British abandon Philadelphia and return to New York
December 29: The British redcoats occupy Savannah, GA

July 8: After recent American success at several battlefields, Spain declares war on Great Britain
July 8 August 19: "Light Horse" Harry Lee attacks British at Paulus Hook, NJ
September 23: John Paul Jones, aboard the Bonhomme Richard, captures British man-of-war Serapis near English coast.
September 28: The Tappan Massacre. November through June 1780 Washington's 2nd winter at Morristown, NJ (the harshest winter of the 18th century)

May 12: British capture Charleston, SC
May 29: British crush Americans at Waxhaw Creek, SC
July 11: French troops arrive at Newport, RI, to aid the American cause
August 6: Patriots defeat Tories at Hanging Rock, SC
August 16: British rout Americans at Camden, SC
September 23: John André arrested, leading to the exposure of Benedict Arnold's plans to cede West Point to the British
October 7: King's Mountain, SC - a battle that lasts 65 minutes. American troops led by Isaac Shelby and John Sevier defeat Maj. Patrick Ferguson and one-third of General Cornwallis's army.
October 14: Washington names Nathanael Greene commander of the Southern Army.

January 1: Mutiny of unpaid Pennsylvania soldiers
January 17: Patriot Morgan overwhelmingly defeats British Col. Tarleton at Cowpens, SC
February 1: The Battle of Cowan's Ford, Huntersville, NC
March 2: Articles of Confederation adopted March 15: British win costly victory at Guilford Courthouse, NC
May 15: British Major Andrew Maxwell cedes Fort Granby, SC to patriot Lieutenant Colonel Henry Lee
June 6: Americans recapture Augusta, GA
Sept. 15: French fleet drives British naval force from Chesapeake Bay
Oct. 19: Cornwallis surrounded on land and sea by Americans and French and surrenders at Yorktown, VA

March 20: Lord North resigns as British prime minister
July 11: British evacuate Savannah, GA
November 30: British and Americans sign preliminary Articles of Peace
December 14: British leave Charleston, SC

April 19: Congress ratifies preliminary peace treaty
September 3: The United States and Great Britain sign the Treaty of Paris
November 25: British troops leave New York City
December 23: Washington resigns as Commander

Sept. 17: U.S. Constitution signed

June 21: U.S. Constitution adopted

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